Joe Attardi

Create an object whose properties can be set only once

November 30, 2018

I recently had the need to have an object whose properties could be set once, but then should be immutable after that. This, of course, is easy to do with Object.defineProperty:

const obj = {};

Object.defineProperty(obj, 'name', {
  value: 'Joe',
  configurable: false,
  writable: false

This will create a property on the object obj with the name name, and the value 'Joe'. Further attempts to set the property will fail.

If this is all you need, great, you’re done. But I wanted something a little easier to use, so I created a little utility function.

The usage is as follows:

const obj = setOnce(['name', 'age']);

This will return an object. The name and age properties of this object can be set only once. Other properties can be added and updated as usual.

It’s not rocket science, and it does use Object.defineProperty behind the scenes, but it’s a little less boilerplate code to write.

Here is the function in its entirety:

function setOnce(properties) {
  const setProperties = {}; // keeps track of which properties have been set
  const backingObj = {}; // holds the set-once property values
  const proxy = {}; // object that will be returned

  properties.forEach(property => {
    Object.defineProperty(proxy, prop, {
      configurable: false,
      set(value) {
        if (!setProperties[prop]) {
          backingObj[prop] = value;
          setProperties[prop] = true;
      get() {
        return backingObj[prop];

  return proxy;

I couldn’t use writable: false, because that would require the property’s value to be set along with the other options to Object.defineProperty. By using a setter like this, the property can be set later and then the set-once functionality kicks in. It sets a flag to indicate that the property has been set. Later, if you try to set the property’s value again, it will see that it was already set and do nothing.

I looked at using Proxy for this, but ended up not using it. The reason is that Proxy is not supported on IE11. A polyfill does exist, but it’s limited. It uses Object.seal to seal the object. That means that the set-once properties’ values would have to be specified at creation time.

In case anyone finds this useful, I published this function as an npm package here: I added a couple of other features - the ability to seal the returned object if you don’t want other properties to be defined on it, and the ability to optionally throw an exception if a set-once property’s value is set again.

Joe Attardi

Hi, I'm Joe Attardi. I live in Billerica, MA and work as a Senior Software Engineer at Salesforce. Follow me on Twitter!